Sanitization vs Sanitation
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
Sanitation includes all four of these technical and non-technical systems: Excreta management systems, wastewater management systems, solid waste management systems as well as drainage systems for rainwater.
Insufficient sanitation is a major cause of infectious diseases like dysentery, cholera, typhoid, etc. and millions of people every year suffer from these illnesses.
Improved sanitation leads to improved nutrition, improved quality of life, increased attendance of girls at school, healthier living environments, improved competitiveness of cities, and economic and social gains to society.
Sanitation is confused with surface sanitization a lot of times. As discussed above, sanitization is the act of sanitizing something, i.e. eliminating anything objectionable while sanitation is the hygienic disposal or recycling of human waste.
Sanitization vs Disinfection
Disinfection is the process, which involves the destruction of most pathogenic microorganisms on inanimate objects.
So while sanitizing refers to lowering the number of germs to a safe level by either cleaning or disinfecting, disinfecting itself refers to killing nearly 100 percent of germs on surfaces or objects
Sanitization reduces the number of germs on a surface thus it can still help prevent the spread of illness. Because for each disease, there's a certain number of germs — called the dose of exposure — you need to contract in order to become sick.
While disinfection on the other hand disinfecting means killing almost all of them.
Another difference is Sanitizers can work almost immediately whereas the chemicals in disinfectants take up to 10 minutes to kill germs.
Mostly, 'Disinfection' and 'Sanitization' nowadays are used interchangeably.
Sanitization vs Cleaning
Cleaning is the act of making something clean. It is the process of removing unwanted substances, such as dirt, infectious agents, and other impurities, from an object. Its scope is restricted by the sense of human sight and touch i.e. we might say a surface is clean if we can't see or feel any dirt/ dust on top of it.
Cleaning is often the first step that removes the dirt and dust from surfaces. Sanitization is the next step that aims at deeper cleaning and focuses on removing pathogens from surfaces, that the human eye can't see at all.